Braudel and reynold have made a systematic study of these european market towns between the thirteenth and fifteenth century. Their investigation shows that in regional districts markets were held once or twice a week while daily markets were common in larger cities. Gradually over time, permanent shops with regular trading days began to supplant the periodic markets, while peddlers filled in the gaps in distribution. The physical market was characterised by transactional exchange and the economy was characterised by local trading. Braudel reports that, in 1600, goods travelled relatively short distances grain 510 miles; cattle 4070 miles; wool and woollen cloth 2040 miles. Following the european age of discovery, goods were imported from afar calico cloth from India, porcelain, silk and tea from China, spices from India and south-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the new World. 35 English essayist, joseph Addison, writing in 1711, described the exotic origin of produce available to English society in the following terms: "Our Ships are laden with the harvest of every Climate: Our Tables are stored with Spices, and Oils, and Wines: Our rooms are.
Store, owner Resume, samples jobHero
The Spanish conquistadors wrote glowingly of markets in the Americas. In the 15th century the mexica ( Aztec ) market of Tlatelolco was the largest in all the Americas. 31 English market towns were regulated from a relatively early period. The English monarchs awarded a charter to local Lords to create markets and fairs for a town or village. This charter would grant the lords the right to take tolls and also afford some protection from rival markets. For example, once a chartered market was granted for specific market days, a nearby rival market could not open on the same days. 32 Across the boroughs of England, a network of chartered markets sprang up between the 12th and 16th centuries, giving consumers reasonable choice in the markets they preferred to patronise. 33 A study on the purchasing habits of the monks and other individuals in medieval England, suggests that consumers of the period were relatively discerning. Purchase decisions were based on purchase criteria such as consumers' perceptions of the range, quality, and price of goods. This informed decisions about where love to make their purchases and which markets were superior. 34 Today, traders and showmen jealously guard the reputation of these historic market charters.
28 fairs sold non-perishables such as farm tools, homewares, furniture, rugs and ceramics. Market towns dotted the empire medieval European landscape while itinerant vendors supplied less populated areas or hard-to-reach districts. Peddlers and other itinerant vendors operated alongside other types of retail for centuries. The political philosopher, john Stuart Mill compared the convenience of markets/fairs to that of the itinerant peddlers: "The contrivance of fairs and markets was early had recourse to, where consumers and producers might periodically meet, without any intermediate agency; and this plan answers tolerably well. 1590 Blintiff has investigated the early medieval networks of market towns across Europe, and suggests that by the 12th century there was an upsurge in the number of market towns and the emergence of merchant circuits as traders bulked up surpluses from smaller regional, different. 30 Market-places appear to have emerged independently outside europe. The Grand bazaar in Istanbul is often cited as the world's oldest continuously-operating market; its construction began in 1455.
The shutters were designed to open so that the statement top portion formed a canopy while the bottom was fitted with legs so that it could serve as a shopboard. 26 Cox and Dannehl suggest that the medieval shopper's experience was very different. Glazed windows, which were rare during the medieval period, and did not become commonplace until the eighteenth century, meant that shop interiors were dark places. Outside the markets, goods were rarely out on display and the service counter was unknown. Shoppers had relatively few opportunities to inspect the merchandise prior to consumption. Many stores had openings onto the street from which they served customers. 27 Outside the major cities, most consumable purchases were made through markets or fairs. Markets were held daily in the more populous towns and cities or weekly in the more sparsely populated rural districts. Markets sold fresh produce; fruit, vegetables, baked goods, meat, poultry, fish summary and some ready to eat foodstuffs; while fairs operated on a periodic cycle and were almost always associated with a religious festival.
In 13th century london, mercers and haberdashers were known to exist and grocers sold "miscellaneous small wares as well as spices and medicines" but fish and other perishables were sold through markets, costermongers, hucksters, peddlers or other type of itinerant vendor. 21 In the more populous cities, a small number of shops were beginning to emerge by the 13th century. In Chester, a medieval covered shopping arcade represented a major innovation that attracted shoppers from many miles around. Known as " The rows" this medieval shopping arcade is believed to be the first of its kind in Europe. 22 Fragments of Chester's Medieval Row, which is believed to date to the mid-13th century, can still be found in Cheshire. 23 In the 13th or 14th century, another arcade with several shops was recorded at Drapery row in Winchester. 24 The emergence of street names such as Drapery row, mercer's Lane and Ironmonger Lane in the medieval period suggests that permanent shops were becoming more commonplace. A typical 17th century shop, with customers being served through an opening onto the street Medieval shops had little in common with their modern equivalent. As late as the 16th century, london's shops were described as little more than "rude booths" and their owners "bawled as loudly as the itinerants." 25 Shopfronts typically had a front door with two wider openings on either side, each covered with shutters.
Stanford thesis signature page
Local producers, who were generally poor, would sell small surpluses from their individual farming activities, purchase minor farm equipment and the also buy a few luxuries for their homes. Major producers such as the great estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates, obviating the producers' need to attend local markets. The very wealthy landowners managed their own distribution, which may have involved exporting and importing. The nature of export markets in antiquity is well documented in ancient sources and archaeological case studies. 13 The romans preferred to purchase goods from specific places: oysters from Londinium, cinnamon from a specific mountain in Arabia, and these place-based preferences stimulated trade throughout Europe and the middle east. 14 Markets were also important centres of social life. 15 The rise of retailing and marketing in England and Europe has been extensively studied, but less is known about developments elsewhere.
16 nevertheless, recent research suggests that China exhibited a rich history of early retail systems. 17 From as early as 200 bce, chinese packaging and branding was used to signal family, place names and product quality, and the use of government imposed product branding was used between 600 and 900. 18 Eckhart and Bengtsson have argued that during the song Dynasty (9601127 Chinese society developed a consumerist culture, where a high level of consumption was attainable for a wide variety of ordinary consumers rather than just the elite. 19 The rise of a consumer culture led to the commercial investment in carefully managed company image, retail signage, symbolic brands, trademark protection and sophisticated brand concepts. 20 Retailing in Medieval Europe edit The row, Chester, Cheshire, england,. 1895; a unique medieval shopping arcade In Medieval England and Europe, relatively few permanent shops were to be found; instead customers walked into the tradesman's workshops where they discussed purchasing options directly with tradesmen.
7 In ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, an open space where, on market days, goods were displayed on mats or temporary stalls. In ancient Rome, trade took place in the forum. Rome had two forums; the forum Romanum and Trajan's Forum. The latter was a vast expanse, comprising multiple buildings with shops on four levels. The roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shop-front. 8 In antiquity, exchange involved direct selling via merchants or peddlers and bartering systems were commonplace.
9 The Phoenicians, noted for their seafaring skills, plied their ships across the mediterranean, becoming a major trading power by the 9th century bce. The Phoenicians imported and exported wood, textiles, glass and produce such as wine, oil, dried fruit and nuts. Their trading skills necessitated a network of colonies along the mediterranean coast, stretching from modern day crete through to tangiers and onto sardinia 10 The Phoenicians not only traded in tangible goods, but were also instrumental in transporting culture. The Phoenician's extensive trade networks necessitated considerable book-keeping and correspondence. In around 1500 bce, the Phoenicians developed a consonantal alphabet which was much easier to learn that the complex scripts used in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Phoenician traders and merchants were largely responsible for spreading their alphabet around the region. 11 Phoenician inscriptions have been found in archaeological sites at a number of former Phoenician cities and colonies around the mediterranean, such as Byblos (in present-day lebanon ) and Carthage in North Africa. 12 Grand bazaar, Istanbul (interior). Established in 1455, it is thought to be the oldest continuously operating covered market In the Graeco-roman world, the market primarily served the local peasantry.
Middle east News The jerusalem Post
Archaeological evidence for trade, probably involving barter systems, dates back more than 10,000 years. As civilizations grew, barter was replaced with retail trade involving coinage. Selling and buying is thought to have emerged in Asia minor (modern Turkey) in around the 7th millennium bce. 5 Gharipour essay points to evidence of primitive shops and trade centres in sialk hills in Kashan (6000 bce catalk huyuk in modern-day turkey (7,5005,700 bce jericho (2600 bce) and Susa (4000 bce). 6 Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia, assyria, phoenicia and Egypt. These markets typically occupied a place in the town's centre. Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied permanent premises in alleys that led to the open market-place. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but also prepared goods for sale on market days.
3 Retailing often letter occurs in retail stores or service establishments, but may also occur through direct selling such as through vending machines, door-to-door sales or electronic channels. 4 Although the idea of retail is often associated with the purchase of goods, the term may be applied to service-providers that sell to consumers. Retail service providers include retail banking, tourism, insurance, private healthcare, private education, private security firms, legal firms, publishers, public transport and others. For example, a tourism provider might have a retail division that books travel and accommodation for consumers plus a wholesale division that purchases blocks of accommodation, hospitality, transport and sightseeing which are subsequently packaged into a holiday tour for sale to retail travel agents. Some retailers badge their stores as "wholesale outlets" offering "wholesale prices." While this practice may encourage consumers to imagine that they have access to lower prices, while being prepared to trade-off reduced prices for cramped in-store environments, in a strict legal sense, a store that. Different jurisdictions set parameters for the ratio of consumer to business sales that define a retail business. History edit see also: History of merchants ; History of the market place ; History of marketing Retailing in antiquity edit marketplace at Trajan's Forum, the earliest known example of permanent retail shopfronts Retail markets have existed since ancient times.
Forms of non-shop retailing include online retailing (a type of electronic-commerce used for business-to-consumer ( B2C ) transactions) and mail order. Contents Etymology edit retail comes from the Old French word tailler, which means "to cut off, clip, pare, divide" in terms of tailoring (1365). It was first recorded as a noun with the meaning of a "sale in small quantities" in 1433 (from the middle French retail, "piece cut off, shred, scrap, paring. 1 As in the French, the word, retail, in both Dutch and German, also refers to the sale of small quantities of items. Definition and explanation edit retail refers to the activity of reselling. A retailer is any person or organisation is a reseller who sells goods or services directly to consumers or end-users. 2 Some retailers may sell to business customers, and such sales are termed non-retail activity. In some jurisdictions or regions, legal definitions of retail specify that at least 80 percent of sales activity must be to end-users.
Retail markets and shops have a very ancient history, dating back to antiquity. Some of the earliest retailers were itinerant peddlers. Over the centuries, retail shops were transformed from little more than "rude booths" to the sophisticated shopping malls of the modern era. Most modern retailers typically make a variety of strategic level decisions including the type of store, the market to be served, the optimal product assortment, customer service, supporting services and the store's overall market positioning. Once the strategic retail plan is in place, retailers devise the retail mix which includes product, price, place, promotion, personnel and presentation. In the digital age, an increasing number of retailers are seeking to reach broader markets by selling through multiple channels, eksempel including both bricks and mortar and online retailing. Digital technologies are also changing the way that consumers pay for goods and services. Retailing support services may also include the provision of credit, delivery services, advisory services, stylist services and a range of other supporting services. Retail shops occur in a diverse range of types and in many different contexts from strip shopping centres in residential streets through to large, indoor shopping malls.
Characteristics of a good
"Retail stores" redirects here. For the comic strip by norm feuti, see. Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand identified through a supply chain. The term "retailer" is typically applied where a service provider front fills the small orders of a large number of individuals, who are end-users, rather than large orders of a small number of wholesale, corporate or government clientele. Shopping generally refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain final goods, including necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it takes place as a recreational activity. Recreational shopping often involves window shopping and browsing: it does not always result in a purchase.