Kiewra, kenneth A; kaufman, douglas.; Hart, katie; Scoular, jacqui; Brown, marissa; Keller, Gwendolyn; Tyler, becci (2009). "What Parents, researchers, and the popular Press have to say about Homework". Kouzma, nadya.; Kennedy, gerard. "Homework, stress, and mood disturbance in senior high school students" (PDF). Leone, carla.; Richards,. "Classwork and homework in early adolescence: The ecology of achievement".
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"School-Based sources of Stress Among Elementary and Secondary At-Risk Students". "The motivational Benefits of Homework: a social-Cognitive perspective". "Impact of homework stress on children's physical and psychological well-being" (PDF). Journal of the hong Kong Medical Association. Conner, jerusha; Pope, denise; Galloway, mollie (2009). "Success with Less Stress". Cooper, robinsin patall (2006,. . 4648) Galloway, mollie; Conner, jerusha; Pope, denise (2013). "Nonacademic Effects of Homework in Privileged, high-Performing High Schools". The journal of Experimental Education. American School board journal.
"Does Homework Improve academic Achievement? A synthesis of Research, ". Review of Educational Research. (1988 "Homework practices, achievements, and biography behaviors of elementary school students center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools Trautwein, Ulrich; Köller, Olaf (2003). "The relationship Between Homework and Achievement—Still Much of a mystery". Vazsonyi, alexander.; Pickering, Lloyd. "The Importance of Family and School Domains in Adolescent deviance: African American and caucasian youth". Journal of youth and Adolescence. Homework and non-academic effects bauwens, jeanne; hourcade, jack.
a b Grohnke, kennedy, and jake merritt. "do kids need Homework?" Scholastic News/ weekly reader Edition 5/6, vol. The san Francisco Chronicle. coughlan, sean (11 December 2014). "UK families' 'long homework hours. Retrieved 2 november 2017. marsh, sarah (2 nashville november 2016). "Parents in the uk and abroad: do your children get set too much homework?". Works Effectiveness of homework cooper, harris; Robinson, jorgianne.; Patall, eksempel Erika.
"More Than Minutes: teachers' roles in Designing Homework". wallis, Claudia (August 29, 2006). "The myth About Homework". a b coughlan, sean. "Is homework worth the hassle?". bauwens hourcade (1992), conner denise (2009), hardy (2003), kouzma kennedy (2002), west wood (1970), ystgaard (1997). "Parents: too much homework".
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In 1901, the california legislature passed an act that effectively abolished homework xls for those who attended kindergarten through the eighth grade. But, in the 1950s, with increasing pressure on the United States to stay ahead in the cold War, homework made a resurgence, and children were encouraged to keep up with their Russian counterparts. By the end of modern the cold War in the early 1990s, the consensus in American education was overwhelmingly in favor of issuing homework to students of all grade levels. 19 United Kingdom British students get more homework than many other countries in Europe. The weekly average for the subject is 5 hours.
The main distinction for uk homework is the social gap, with middle-class teenagers getting a disproportionate amount of homework compared to Asia and Europe. 20 Spain In 2012, a report by the oecd showed that Spanish children spend.4 hours a week on homework. This prompted the ceapa, representing 12,000 parent associations to call for a homework strike. 21 Notes and references Citations synthesis of research on homework. H cooper - educational leadership, 1989 - usd. "Homework: The rules of the game". Epstein, joyce.; voorhis, Frances.
(2009) found that parents were less likely to report homework as a distraction from their children's activities and responsibilities. Galloway, conner pope (2013) recommended further empirical study relating to this aspect due to the difference between student and parent observations. Time use galloway, conner pope (2013) surveyed 4,317 high school students from ten high-performing schools, and found that students reported spending more than 3 hours on homework daily. 72 of the students reported stress from homework, and 82 reported physical symptoms. The students slept an average of 6 hours 48 minutes, lower than the recommendations prescribed by various health agencies.
A study done at the University of Michigan in 2007 concluded that the amount of homework given is increasing. In a sample taken of students between the ages of 6 and 9 years, it was shown that students spend more than 2 hours a week on homework, as opposed to 44 minutes in 1981. 17 Benefits Some educators argue that homework is beneficial to students, as it enhances learning, develops the skills taught in class, and lets educators verify that students comprehend their lessons. 18 Proponents also argue that homework makes it more likely that students will develop and maintain proper study habits that they can use throughout their educational career. 18 History United States Historically, homework was frowned upon in American culture. With few students interested in higher education, and due to the necessity to complete daily chores, homework was discouraged not only by parents, but also by school districts.
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Stress was especially evident among high school students. Students that reported stress from homework were more likely essay to be deprived of sleep. Homework can cause tension and conflict in the home as well as at school, and can reduce students' family and leisure time. In the Cheung leung-Ngai (1992) survey, failure to complete homework and low grades where homework was a contributing factor was correlated with greater conflict; some students have reported teachers and parents frequently criticizing their work. In the metLife study, high school students reported spending more time completing homework than performing home tasks. Kohn (2006) argued that homework can create family conflict and reduce students' quality of life. The authors of Sallee rigler (2008), both high school English teachers, reported that their homework disrupted their students' extracurricular activities and responsibilities. However, kiewra.
Bempechat (2004) says that homework develops students' motivation and study skills. In a single study, parents and teachers of middle school students believed that homework improved students' study skills and personal responsibility skills. Their students were more likely to have negative perceptions about homework and were less likely to ascribe the development of such skills to homework. Leone richards (1989) found that students generally had negative emotions when completing homework and reduced engagement compared to other activities. Health and daily life homework has been identified in numerous studies and articles as a dominant or significant source of stress and anxiety trees for students. 12 Studies on the relation between homework and health are few compared to studies on academic performance. Cheung leung-Ngai (1992) surveyed 1,983 students in Hong Kong, and found that homework led not only to added stress and anxiety, but also physical symptoms, such as headaches and stomachaches. Students in the survey who were ridiculed or punished by parents and peers had a higher incidence of depression symptoms, with.2 of students reporting that they "always" had suicidal thoughts, and anxiety was exacerbated by punishments and criticism of students by teachers for both. A 2007 study of American students by metLife found that 89 of students felt stressed from homework, with 34 reporting that they "often" or "very often" felt stressed from homework.
students who are performing well. 8 Study habits Proponents claim that assigning homework to young children helps them learn good study habits. Essentially, they advocate for doing potentially unnecessary homework from approximately age five to ten as a way of practicing for doing necessary homework from age 10. No research has ever been conducted to determine whether this claim has any merit. 9 Non-academic The amount of homework given does not necessarily affect students' attitudes towards homework and various other aspects of school. Epstein (1988) found a near-zero correlation between the amount of homework and parents' reports on how well their elementary school students behaved. Vazsonyi pickering (2003) studied 809 adolescents in American high schools, and found that, using the normative deviance Scale as a model for deviance, the correlation was.28 for caucasian students, and.24 for African-American students. For all three of the correlations, higher values represent a higher correlation between time spent on homework and poor conduct.
2, teachers have many purposes for assigning homework including: 3 practice, preparation, participation personal development, parentchild relations, parentteacher communications, peer interactions, policy, public relations, and punishment. Effects, academic performance, homework research dates back to the early 1900s. However, no consensus exists on the general effectiveness on homework. Results of homework studies vary based on multiple factors, such as the age group of those studied and the measure of academic performance. Among teenagers, students who spend somewhat more time on homework generally have higher grades, and somewhat higher test scores than students who spend less time on homework. Very high amounts of homework cause students' academic performance to worsen, even among older students. Students who are assigned homework in middle and high school score somewhat better on standardized tests, literature but the students who have 60 to 90 minutes of homework a day in middle school or more than two hours in high school score worse. 7 younger students who spend more time on homework generally have slightly worse, or the same academic performance, as those who spend less time on homework.
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For other uses, see, homework loyalty (disambiguation). Some mathematics homework, homework, or a homework assignment, is a set of tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the class. Common homework assignments may include required reading, a writing or typing project, mathematical exercises to be completed, information to be reviewed before a test, or other skills to be practiced. The effect of homework is debated. Generally speaking, homework does not improve academic performance among children citation needed and may improve academic skills among older students, especially lower-achieving students. Homework also creates stress for students and their parents and reduces the amount of time that students could spend outdoors, exercising, playing, working, sleeping, or in other activities. Purposes, the basic objectives of assigning homework to students are the same as schooling in general: to increase the knowledge and improve the abilities and skills of the students, 1 to prepare them for upcoming (or complex or difficult) lessons, to extend what they know. Homework also provides an opportunity for parents to participate in their children's education. Homework is designed to reinforce what students have already learned.