Insulin resistance prevents glucose uptake into the tissues and increases the blood glucose level. The pancreas, thus, have to step up the production of insulin. This effect is seen in normal individuals as well as diabetics. Periodontitis, diabetes and Pregnancy, periodontitis is particularly a problem in pregnant, diabetic women. Periodontitis causes an increase in biologic fluids, inducing labor. In this manner, it is associated with pre term, low birth weight babies.
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The interrelationship between Periodontitis and diabetes provides an example of systemic disease predisposing to oral infection, and once that infection is established, the oral infection exacerbates systemic disease. Effects of Infection on Glycemic Control. Glycemic control is affected by all kinds of infections. Systemic bacterial and viral infections cause a resistance in the peripheral tissue receptors to insulin. In case of periodontal disease, there is a persistent bacterial infection which acts in a manner similar to other systemic infections. The presence of severe periodontal disease worsens glycemic control. This effect is more pronounced in Gram negative infections. Insulin essay Resistance, periodontal infection causes an increase in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, like interleukin1 (IL1) and tumor necrosis factor α management (tnfα). Studies have demonstrated that tnfα suppresses insulin action via its specific receptor; hence, it exacerbates insulin resistance, producing an insulin resistance syndrome similar to that observed in diabetes. It initiates destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to development of diabetes.
This predisposes to chronic inflammation, tissue breakdown and diminished repair capacity. There is an increase in Interleukin1 (IL1) and Tumor necrosis factor α (tnfα). These, in turn increase the release of enzymes that destroy gingival connective tissue, and promote the formation of osteoclasts. Bone formation, diabetes has also been found to impair the ability of new bone formation. It interferes with the process of coupling. This diminished capacity of new bone formation interferes with the ability of a diabetic individual to repair the loss of tissue that occurs in periodontal spondylolisthesis disease. Bacterial plaque is the primary etiologic factor of periodontal disease, but diabetes complicates periodontal disease by altering host response to plaque and reducing the ability to heal following surgery. Periodontal disease aodifying factor for diabetes.
These fibers, then, are not repaired or replaced. This causes decreased wound healing. Immune response: diabetes also leads to a diminished immune response. Diabetic abnormalities in immune response include impaired neutrophil chemotaxis, phagocytosis and adhesion. Certain protein factors in diabetic serum competitively bind neutrophil receptors, about thereby preventing complement-mediated phagocytosis. The bodys defense system is thus undermined, predisposing to infections. Cytokine regulation: diabetics show an increase of inflammatory cytokines from monocytes/ polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reduction in growth factors from macrophages.
There is a constant release of toxins from the plaque. Thus microangiopathy can cause tissue destruction. Collagen Turnover: Collagen metabolism is defective in diabetics. Hyperglycemia is associated with an increase in protease and collagenase activity. There is an increase. We will write a custom essay sample. Diabetes And Periodontal Disease or any similar topic only for you in Accumulated Glycation End-products (AGEs). These ages cause cross-linkage of collagen fibers.
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Condition like vitamin c deficiency, pregnancy, immune deficiency and diabetes affect periodontal disease. Diabetes as an aggravating factor of periodontal disease. The oral manifestations of diabetes include mucositis, burning mouth, candidiasis, abscesses, gingival polyps and periodontal disease. Diabetes, when a complication of Periodontitis, acts as a modifying and aggravating factor in the severity of periodontal infection. Diabetics with periodontitis essay demonstrate more attachment loss, bone loss, and deeper probing pocket depths than non-diabetic individuals. The earlier the onset of diabetes, and the poorer the control, more is the susceptibility to periodontal disease. Also, when a diabetic individual contracts periodontal disease, it is of a greater severity than in non-diabetic individuals.
Change in the microflora, diabetic individuals show elevated levels of glucose in the blood. This leads to elevated glucose levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). This changes the environment of the periodontal microflora. There is a qualitative change of micro-organisms between non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. Studies have shown an increase in the number of Capnocytophaga and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcometans subgingivally in diabetic individuals. Microvascular Angiopathy: diabetes leads to microvascular angiopathy, causing a compromised delivery of blood and nutrients to the periodontal tissues. There is a decrease in the removal of toxic metabolites new from the tissues.
This leads to an elevated blood sugar level. There are two types of diabetes, depending on the cause: Type 1 (insulin dependant diabetes mellitus) It is caused due to autoimmune destruction of the β cells of the pancreatic Islets of Langerhans. Type 2 (non insulin dependant diabetes mellitus). It is caused by resistance of peripheral receptors to the action of insulin. Both types of diabetes are associated with many long term complications.
These include nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. Periodontitis is now considered to be the sixth complication of diabetes. It is also associated with poor wound healing and susceptibility to infections. Periodontal disease, periodontal disease can be defined as An inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microorganisms or groups of specific microorganisms, in a susceptible host, resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with pocket formation. Periodontitis is an ongoing process characterized by phases of destruction and quiescence. The destruction is influenced by many systemic factors like dietary deficiencies, hormonal balance and host defense.
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Periodontal disease, though limited to the oral cavity, can influence systemic health. The effect of diabetes on periodontal disease has been studied extensively in the past. Now, with the advent of periodontal medicine, the effects of periodontal disease on development and control of diabetes are under scrutiny. We shall be seeing the cyclic relationship of these two diseases, and how control of one can lead to improved control of the other. Diabetes, diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease with several major complications affecting both the quality and length of life. It is an endocrine disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Diminished insulin production, impaired action professional of insulin or both, lead to decreased transport of glucose to the tissues.
symptoms of diabetes, namely: Increased thirst, frequent need to urinate. Fatigue, blurred vision and, tingling or pain in the hands, feet and/or legs. The kidneys are another organ that is at particular risk of damage as a result of diabetes and the risk is again increased by poorly controlled diabetes, high blood pressure and cholesterol. Diabetic nephropathy is the term for kidney disease as a result of diabetes. Damage to the kidneys takes place over a period of years and can picked up by nephropathy screening before it gets too serious. Treatment includes lifestyle changes and may include medicine to treat high blood pressure and cholesterol. Introduction, diabetes and periodontal disease are both highly prevalent in the general population. A disease of the metabolism, diabetes has far reaching effects in the body. It affects the bodys capacity to fight infections and regenerate.
There are a variety of risk factors for type 2 diabetes, any or all of which increase the chances of developing the condition. Living a sedentary lifestyle, increasing age, bad diet. Other causes, pancreatitis or pancreatectomy as a cause of diabetes. Pancreatitis is known to increase the risk of developing diabetes, as is a pancreatectomy. Polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos). One of the root causes of pcos is obesity-linked insulin resistance, which may also increase the risk of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. This syndrome increases production of the cortisol hormone, which serves to increased blood glucose levels. An over-abundance of cortisol can cause diabetes. Patients with glucagonoma may experience diabetes because of a lack front of equilibrium between levels of insulin production and glucagon production.
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Type 1 diabetes causes, type resume 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system destroying the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. This causes diabetes by leaving the body without enough insulin to function normally. This is called an autoimmune reaction, or autoimmune cause, because the body is attacking itself. There is no specific diabetes causes, but the following triggers may be involved: Viral or bacterial infection, chemical toxins within food. Unidentified component causing autoimmune reaction, underlying genetic disposition may also be a type 1 diabetes cause. Type 2 diabetes causes, type 2 diabetes causes are usually multifactorial more than one diabetes cause is involved. Often, the most overwhelming factor is a family history of type 2 diabetes. This is the most likely type 2 diabetes cause.