In some cases, a ghostwriter may be called in just to clean up, edit, and polish a rough draft of an autobiography or a "how-to" book. In other cases, the ghostwriter will write an entire book or article based on information, stories, notes, an outline, or interview sessions with the celebrity or public figure. The credited author also indicates to the ghostwriter what type of style, tone, or "voice" they want in the book. In some cases, such as with some "how-to" books, diet guides, or cookbooks, a book will be entirely written by a ghostwriter, and the celebrity (e.g., a well-known musician or sports star) will be credited as author. Publishing companies use this strategy to increase the marketability of a book by associating it with a celebrity or well-known figure. In several countries before elections, candidates commission ghostwriters to produce autobiographies for them so as to gain visibility and exposure. Two of John. Kennedy 's books are almost entirely credited to ghostwriters.
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14 Outsourced ghostwriters, whose quality levels vary widely, complete 200-page books for fees ranging between 30, for or 1218 per page. Citation needed The true tests of credibility—the writer's track record, and samples of his or her craft—become even more important in these instances, when the writer comes from a culture and first-language that are entirely different from the client's. In some cases, ghostwriters are allowed to share credit. For example, a common method is to put the client/author's name on a book cover as the main byline (by author's Name ) and then to put the ghostwriter 's name underneath it (as told to Ghostwriter 's Name ). Sometimes this is done in lieu of pay or in order to decrease the amount of payment to the book ghostwriter for whom the credit has its own intrinsic value. Also, the ghostwriter can be cited as a coauthor of a book, or listed in the movie or film credits when having ghostwritten the script or screenplay for a film production. For nonfiction books, the ghostwriter may be credited as a "contributor" or a "research assistant". In other cases, the ghostwriter receives no official credit for writing a book or article; in cases where the credited author or the publisher or both wish to conceal the ghostwriter 's role, the ghostwriter may be asked to sign a nondisclosure contract that legally. Some have made the distinction between 'author' and 'writer as ghostwriter kevin Anderson explains in a washington Post interview: "A ghostwriter is an interpreter and a translator, not an author, which is why our clients deserve full credit for authoring their books." 9 Nonfiction edit. The degree of involvement of the ghostwriter in nonfiction writing projects ranges from minor to substantial. Various sources explain the role of the ghostwriter and how competent writers can get this kind of work.
On the upper end of the spectrum, with celebrities that can all but guarantee a publisher large sales, the fees can be much higher. In 2001, the new York times stated that the fee that the ghostwriter for Hillary Clinton 's memoirs will receive is probably about 500,000 of her book's 8 million advance, which "is near the top of flat fees paid to collaborators". 11 There is also the consideration of different benchmarks in different countries. In Canada, the Writers' Union has established a minimum fee schedule for ghostwriting, starting at 40,000 page book, paid at various stages of the drafting of the book. Research fees are an extra charge on top of this minimum fee. 12 In Germany, the average fee for a confidential ghostwriting service is about 100 per page. Citation needed The Editorial Freelancers Association also suggests rates of 26 cents to 50 cents per word, which would be about 15,000 to 30,000 for a 250-page book. 13 A recent availability also exists, of outsourcing many kinds of jobs, including ghostwriting, to offshore locations like india, china and the Philippines words where the customer can save money.
5 However, the recent shift into the digital age (1520 world market share of books by 2015) has brought some changes, by opening newer markets that bring their own opportunities for authors and writers 6 —especially on the more affordable side of the ghostwriting business. One such market is the shorter book, best represented at the moment by Amazon's Kindle singles imprint: texts of 30,000 words and under. 7 Such a length would have been much harder to sell before digital reader-technologies became widely available, but is now quite acceptable. Writers on the level of Ian McEwan have celebrated this recent change, mainly for artistic reasons. 8 As a consequence, the shorter format makes a project potentially more affordable for the client/author. Manhattan Literary, a ghostwriting company, states that "book projects on the shorter side, tailored to new markets like the kindle singles imprint and others (30,00042,000 words) start at a cost of 15,000". 9 10 And this shorter book appears to be here to stay. It was once financially impractical for publishers to produce such novella-length texts (they would have to charge too much but this new market is, by 2015, already substantial and has been projected to be a solid part of the future of book publishing. 7 so, with its appearance the starting price for the professional book writer has come down by about half, but only if this shorter format makes sense for the client.
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For other types of nonfiction books or articles, a ghostwriter will interview the credited author and review previous speeches, articles, and interviews with the credited author, to assimilate his or her arguments and points of view. Most of this work can be done over email via the Internet, through postal mail, phone or video calls, and other methods of instant communication. Also, ghostwriters may work on accompanying documents, such as treatments for screenplays. Often, ghostwriters will work on related projects beyond the scope of professional ghostwriting, such as marketing, promotions, sales, publishing or other related services for pay, in order to procure more clients and increase the total amount of their business. Remuneration and credit edit This section possibly contains original research.
Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (December 2014) The ghostwriter for Hillary Clinton's memoirs received a 500,000 fee for collaborating with her. Ghostwriters will often spend from several months to a full year researching, writing, and editing nonfiction and fiction works for a client, and they are paid based on a price per hour, per word or per page, with a flat fee, or a percentage. Some ghostwriters charge for articles "4 per word and more depending on the complexity" of the article. 3 Literary agent Madeleine morel states that the average ghostwriter 's advance for work for major book publishers is "between 15,000 and 75,000". 4 These benchmark prices are mirrored approximately in the film industry by the Writer's guild, where a minimum Basic the Agreement gives a starting price for the screenplay writer of 37,073 (non-original screenplay, no treatment).
2 Ghostwriters may have varying degrees of involvement in the production of a finished work. Some ghostwriters are hired to edit and clean up a rough draft or partially completed work, while others are hired to do most of the writing based on an outline provided by the credited author. For some projects, such as creating an autobiography for a celebrity, ghostwriters will do a substantial amount of research. Ghostwriters are also hired to write fiction in the style of an existing author, often as a way of increasing the number of books that can be published by a popular author. Ghostwriters will often spend a period from several months to a full year researching, writing, and editing nonfiction and fiction works for a client. Ghostwriters are paid either per page, per each word or via total word count, with a flat fee, with a percentage of the royalties of the sales, or by using some combination thereof.
The division of work between the ghostwriter and the credited author varies a great deal. In some cases, the ghostwriter is hired to edit a rough draft of a mostly completed manuscript. In this case, the outline, ideas and much of the language in the finished book or article are those of the credited author. If it is agreed upon, for example in a signed contract, the ghostwriter will sign over all the rights to everything he or she adds into the work that is not otherwise copyrighted to someone else. In many cases, a ghostwriter handles most of the writing, using concepts and stories provided by the credited author. In this case, a ghostwriter will do extensive research on the credited author or their subject area of expertise. It is rare for a ghostwriter to prepare a book or article with no input from the credited author; at a minimum, the credited author usually jots down a basic framework of ideas at the outset or provides comments on the ghostwriter 's final draft. For an autobiography, a ghostwriter will typically interview the credited author, their colleagues, and family members, and find interviews, articles, and video footage about the credited author or their work.
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A controversial and scientifically unethical practice is medical ghostwriting, where biotech or pharmaceutical companies pay professional writers to produce papers and then recruit (via a payment or as a perk) other scientists or physicians to attach their names to these articles brief before they are published. Some university and college students hire ghostwriters from friendship essay mills to write entrance essays, term papers, theses, and dissertations. This is largely considered unethical unless the actual ghostwriting work is just light editing. Ghostwriters are hired for numerous reasons. In many cases, celebrities or public figures do not have the time, discipline, or writing skills to write and research a several-hundred page autobiography or "how-to" book. Even if a celebrity or public figure has the writing skills to pen a short article, they may not know how to structure and edit a several-hundred page book so that it is captivating and well-paced. In other cases, publishers use ghostwriters to increase the number of books that can be published each year under the name of well-known, highly marketable authors, or to quickly release a topical book that ties in with a recent or upcoming newsworthy event.
for wealthy patrons. Ghosting also occurs in popular music. A pop music ghostwriter writes lyrics and a melody in the style of the credited musician. In hip hop music, the increasing use of ghostwriters by high-profile hip-hop stars has led to controversy. In the visual arts, it is not uncommon in either fine art or commercial art such as comics for a number of assistants to do work on a piece that is credited to a single artist. However, when credit is established for the writer, the acknowledgement of their contribution is public domain and the writer in question would not be considered a ghostwriter. Contents, overview edit a consultant or career-switcher may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on a topic in their professional area, to establish or enhance credibility as an 'expert' in their field. Public officials and politicians employ "correspondence officers" to respond to the large volume of official correspondence. A number of papal encyclicals have been written by ghostwriters.
As a analysis result, his publisher hired ghostwriters to write novels in the Clancy style. A ghostwriter is hired to write literary or journalistic works, speeches, or other texts that are officially credited to another person as the author. Celebrities, executives, participants in timely news stories, and political leaders often hire ghostwriters to draft or edit autobiographies, memoirs, magazine articles, or other written material. In music, ghostwriters are often used to write songs, lyrics, and instrumental pieces. Screenplay authors can also use ghostwriters to either edit or rewrite their scripts to improve them. Usually, there is a confidentiality clause in the contract between the ghostwriter and the credited author that obligates the former to remain anonymous. Sometimes the ghostwriter is acknowledged by the author or publisher for his or her writing services, euphemistically called a "researcher" or "research assistant but often the ghostwriter is not credited.
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Faculty and Staff ions The Ohio state University. Emergency alert message, page content, ohio state costume museum Is an Incredible resource. Most popular links, academic Resources, benefits, communication Resources. Educational professional development, employment, governance policies, international. Strategic Direction, teaching Resources, introducing Ohio state Insights, ohio state Insights is a weekly delivery of content that matters to your world. For other uses, see, ghostwriter (disambiguation). The popular demand for, tom Clancy 's action novels exceeded his ability to write new books.