and "How did American sea power facilitate the victory over the British in the revolutionary war? and "What are you doing this weekend? and "What accounts for the effectiveness of American sea power during the revolutionary war?" A third type of question, the " What if you were or " Let's pretend " type, is less frequently used by teachers. Example: "If you were john paul Jones writing during the revolutionary war, how would you phrase a note to the continental Congress re-questing appropriations for further naval supplies?" This kind of question calls for an under-standing of the historical period, an imaginative mind, and. Method of Answering to the historian (and that means you simply because you are enrolled in a history course) the most important part of his writing, be it an examination or a book, is the thesis. To the ordinary world (non historians) what the historian calls a thesis is nothing more than " the point he's trying to make." But to us of the in-group a thesis is a thesis. For instance, in answering the question about george washington's contributions to the war effort, you may have contended that he was not indispensable. To you, that was a statement of your opinion, interpretation, point of view, etc.
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Types of questions, depending upon the teacher, you may be called upon to "discuss "trace "compare and contrast "write an essay "evaluate etc., etc., etc. Do not be taken off guard by the wording or the verbs used in the question; the verb within the questions is the teacher's method of channeling your answer in a certain direction. Note the following example questions, all treating a single problem, yet each a little different because of the imperative verb :. "Discuss the role of sea power in gaining the eventual victory over the British in the. "Compare and contrast American and British sea power accomplishments during the. "Trace the development of American sea power showing how it proved decisive during the. "Write an essay on the effectiveness of American sea power during the revolutionary war.". "Evaluate new American sea power during the revolutionary war.". A second type of query is that which utilizes the interrogative words such as "what "why "how etc. This type is the easiest to comprehend because it is the type of question which is used most frequently in everyday life. Example: "How are you this morning?
Many writers spend their time writing "around" a question because, by failing to grasp immediately the meaning of a question, they fail to perceive what the teacher wants discussed. Some questions are easy comprehend - for example: "Trace the course by which the Thirteen Colonies came to declare their independence from Great Britain or "Write a history of the gradual slippage of the United States toward involvement in World War.". Other questions, however, may intimidate a reader simply because of the language in which they are written. The result in such cases is usually an aimless rambling in an essay filled with words and memorized facts (sometimes lists of memorized facts void of ideas for and understanding. Example: "Without the contributions of george washington, the rebelling Colonials would never have won the revolutionary war. In this query you are not being asked to recite a memorized factual summary of the contributions of george washington to the revolutionary effort, nor are you being asked to spit back the major battles of the war. Rather, and here is where the word meaning is applicable, you are being asked for an evaluation of george's contributions- a critical assessment made by yourself and based upon the knowledge which you have acquired, not memorized, from the lectures and readings - with references.
They are depriving themselves of house the opportunity to ask, "What new insights and perspectives might I gain in the process of writing this paper?" instead of "How can I check this box and get my credential?". Some might argue that even students who use essay services are forced to learn something in order to graduate. After all, when they sit down to take exams, those who have absorbed nothing at all will be exposed. That may be true in a traditional classroom, but these days, with more and more degree programs are moving online - and in response, more and more Internet-based test-taking services have sprung. One version of "m" called t boasts, "Just let us know what the exam is about and we will find the right expert who will log in on your behalf, finish the exam within the time limit and get you a guaranteed grade for the. The Writing of a history Essay exam. The writing oistory essay examination. What to look for, the first step in the successful writing of a history essay examination is to make certain that you read the question carefully and understand what in essence is being asked.
By this logic, a student who pays a fair market price for it has earned whatever grade it brings. In fact, many institutions of higher education market not the challenges provided by their course of study, but the ease with which busy students can complete it in the midst of other daily responsibilities. The shrewd shopper, it seems, invests the least time and effort necessary to get the goods. But when students outsource their essays to third-party services, they are devaluing the very degree programs they pursue. They are making a mockery of the very idea of education by putting its trappings - assignments, grades, and degrees - ahead of real learning. They're cheating their instructors, who issue grades on the presumption that they represent a student's actual work. They are also cheating their classmates who do invest the time and effort necessary to earn their own grades. But ultimately, students who use essay-writing services are cheating no one more than themselves.
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Some may simply be short on time and juggling competing commitments. As the cost of college continues to escalate, more and more students need to hold down part-time or even full-time jobs. Some are balancing school with marriage, parenthood, and other family responsibilities. The sales pitch of the essay-writing services reassures students that they are learning what they need to know and merely "lack the time needed to get it down on paper.". But more disturbingly, some students may question the very value of writing term papers. After all, they may ask, how many homework contemporary jobs really require such archaic forms of writing?
And what is the point of doing research and formulating an argument when reams of information on virtually any topic are available at the click of a button on the Internet? Some may even doubt the relevance of the whole college experience. Here is where the real problem lies. The idea of paying someone else to do your work for you has become increasingly commonplace in our broader culture, even in the realm of writing. It is well known that many actors, athletes, politicians, and businesspeople have contracted with uncredited ghostwriters to produce their memoirs for them. There is no law against. At the same time, higher education has been transformed into an industry, another sphere of economic activity where goods and services are bought and sold.
Scrivener and referencing tool, zotero, and, for the procrastinators, there are productivity programmes like. Self Control, which allow users to block certain websites from their computers for a set period. Look beyond the reading list, this is comparatively easy to do, says Squirrell. Look at the citations used in the text, put them in google Scholar, read the abstracts and decide whether theyre worth reading. Then you can look on google Scholar at other papers that have cited the work youre writing about some of those will be useful. But quality matters more than quantity.
And finally, the introduction, the old trick of dealing with your introduction last is common knowledge, but it seems few have really mastered the art of writing an effective opener. Introductions are the easiest things in the world to get right and nobody does it properly, squirrel says. It should be here is the argument i am going to make, i am going to substantiate this with three or four strands of argumentation, drawing upon these theorists, who say these things, and I will conclude with some thoughts on this area and how. You should be able to encapsulate it in 100 words. Keep up with the latest on guardian Students: follow us on Twitter at @GdnStudents and become a member to receive exclusive benefits and our weekly newsletter. A far deeper question is this: Why aren't the students who use these services crafting their own essays to begin with?
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A book may be listed, but that doesnt mean you need to absorb the whole thing. Squirrell advises reading the introduction and conclusion and a relevant chapter but no more. Otherwise you wont actually get anything out of it because youre trying to plough your way through a 300-page monograph, he says. You also need to store the information youre gathering in a helpful, systematic way. Bryan Greetham recommends a digital update of his old-school project box approach. I have a box to catch all of those small things a figure, a"tion, something interesting someone says Ill write them down and put them in the box so i dont lose them. Then when I come to write, i have all of my material. There are a plenty of online offerings to help with this, such as the project management app.
Every argument has its limits and if you can try and explore those, the business markers will often reward that. Fine, use wikipedia then, the use of wikipedia for research is a controversial topic among academics, with many advising their students to stay away from the site altogether. I genuinely disagree, says Squirrell. Those on the other side say that you cant know who has written it, what they had in mind, what their biases are. But if youre just trying to get a handle on a subject, or you want to find a scattering of secondary sources, it can be quite useful. I would only recommend it as either a primer or a last resort, but it does have its place. Reading lists can be a hindrance as well as a help. They should be your first port of call for guidance, but they arent to-do lists.
you are going to be able to say: There are issues with these certain accounts, here is how you might resolve those. Thats the difference between a 60-something essay and a 70-something essay. Critique your own arguments, once youve cast a critical eye over the texts, you should turn it back on your own arguments. This may feel like going against the grain of what youve learned about writing academic essays, but its the key to drawing out developed points. Were taught at an early age to present both sides of the argument, Squirrell continues. Then you get to university and youre told to present one side of the argument and sustain it throughout the piece. But thats not quite it: you need to figure out what the strongest objections to your own argument would. Write them and try to respond to them, so you become aware of flaws in your reasoning.
Poke holes, the goal of writing any essay is to show that you can think critically about the material at hand (whatever it may be). This means going beyond regurgitating what youve read; if youre fruit just repeating other peoples arguments, youre never going to trouble the upper end of the marking scale. You need to be using your higher cognitive abilities, says Bryan Greetham, author of the bestselling. How to Write better Essays. Youre not just showing understanding and recall, but analysing and synthesising ideas from different sources, then critically evaluating them. Thats where the marks lie. But what does critical evaluation actually look like? According to Squirrell, its simple: you need to poke holes in the texts youre exploring and work out the ways in which the authors arent perfect. That can be an intimidating idea, he says.
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As the government begins its crackdown on essay mill websites, its easy to see just how much pressure students are under to get top grades for their coursework these days. But writing a high-scoring paper doesnt need to be complicated. We spoke to experts to get some simple techniques that will raise your writing game. Tim Squirrell is a phD student at the University of Edinburgh, and is teaching for the first time this year. When he was asked to deliver sessions on the art of essay-writing, he decided to publish a comprehensive (and brilliant) blog on the topic, offering wisdom gleaned from turning out two or three essays a week for his own undergraduate degree. There is a knack to it, lab he says. It took me until my second or third year at Cambridge to work it out. No one tells you how to put together an argument and push yourself from a 60 to a 70, but once you to get grips with how youre meant to construct them, its simple.