"Actual" is what has to happen, because of the implications already contained in itself. In other terms - to take an example - in a situation where an underprivileged class is blatantly exploited by a privileged one, there are already the germs of revolt and violent change. That revolt is then "actual". The contingent and terrible consequences of exploitation and revolt (such as death, injustice, revenge) accompany the realisation of the actual, but are not "actual" themselves. They are awful "accidents". According to hegel, what is "rational.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, biography, books
The existence of civil society as such is an essential feature of modern times. As far as international politics is concerned, hegel was well aware that any given State was limited by its self-interests, and that those interests were at the odds with those of other nations. Finally, hegel's system cannot be reduced to the section of the "objective spirit". There is a higher reality than the one represented by the State, and it is constituted by the three moments of the "absolute spirit Art, religion and Philosophy. While creating the material conditions that enable artists, theologians and philosophers to operate, the State can't impose itself on these crucial aspects of the freedom of consciousness. Doesn't Hegel's dictum, "Reality is Rational oblige us to accept War, Atrocity and Injustice? Hegel's dictum actually reads: "What is rational is actual, what is actual is rational". It is important to notice the succession of moments in this famous sentence: first comes "the rational is actual then comes "the actual is rational". A correct interpretation of the dictum relies on the correct understanding of the word "actual". As Hegel himself explained, "actuality" does not correspond to mere existence.
He is just using a theological metaphor to explain that the State represents the incarnation bill of human freedom in a set of institutions, just like christ represent the incarnation of God in our human history. It is true that Hegel attributes to the State an important function in his political philosophy. He considers the State to be the highest incarnation of the "objective spirit the highest form of institutionalised freedom ever reached by man. It is important to note that Hegel considers a state to be rational, insofar it is also free: the more a particular State is free, the more it is closer to the concept of State itself. The fact that State is so important to hegel does not diminish the crucial function of the previous moments of the objective spirit,. Family and civil society. Hegel never proposes to "swallow" and annihilate them in the State.
It is obvious, but it has to be repeated: during Hegel's lifetime, war was violent, of course, but was also very different. Civilians were rarely involved in direct attacks; the powers at war always envisaged the possibility of peace. There were no weapons capable of destroying entire nations and endanger the very survival of human life on Earth. Didn't Hegel say that the State review is divine, or even that the State is God? There is a famous sentence in Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of History that has been badly translated into English, so that it fits with the old prejudice that Hegel identified the State with God. The bad translation is: "The State is the march of God through history". The actual correct translation, corresponding to the german text, is: "That the State exists, is like the march of God through history". From the surrounding text, it is clear that Hegel is not affirming that the State is God.
The major feature of Hegel's philosophy in general is movement. War, for all its tragical consequences and its sufferences (and Hegel describes them without any kind of romantic pathos or exaltation, but just for how terrible they are brings movement to history and sometimes allows the progress in the consciousness of freedom. Let's take the French revolution and the napoleonic wars, for instance: instead of simply condemning these events as violent expression of human rage, hegel locates them in their own context, acknowledges the role violence has played in these events and the fact that without violence. Let's not forget that "Perpetual peace" was not only a concept brought forward by the Abbot of saint-pierre and Kant; it was also the self-confessed ideal that inspired the 'holy Alliance'. Eternal stability benefits the privileged with respect to the underprivileged. Finally, it would be a gross mistake to project back on Hegel our own experience with contemporary wars. When writing in the early xixth century, hegel was not aware of the destructive potential of modern weapons.
Hegel ( ) - friesian School
Nazi ideology is based on two key concepts: the subdivision of world's inhabitants into a hierarchy of biological races (and, as a consequence, anthropological nominalism an irrational exaltation of force, action and violence on reason, thought and law and order. Both principles are utterly incompatible with Hegel's political philosophy. Hegel's main concept, "Spirit cannot in any case be identified with the one of "race". Already in the "Phenomenology" Hegel heavily criticizes pseudo-scientific doctrines which claim to be able to explain human behaviour through "exterior and accidental" details such as the form of the head or the characteristics of the body. According to hegel, one of the major conquests of Christianism (and then of the French revolution) was the discovery of the concept of "human being" as such. In his "Philosophy of Right" (1821 he claims that it is no longer important whether one is called French, german, jew or Italian, because these characterisations are sublated in the very concept of "human being".
Moreover, hegel is a staunch supporter of law, codification and rationality against "tradition" and "feeling". In his "Philosophy of Right" he declares that the respect for the codified law is the "shibboleth" distinguishing old the true philosopher from the dangerous resume fanaticist. Bearing this in mind, it is not surprising that Hegel's philosophy was explicitly rejected by Adolf Hitler in his Table talks of 1940. Didn't Hegel glorify war? Nowhere in Hegel's philosophy can we trace a glorification of war as such. Hegel deals with war as an undeniable "fact" that characterise human history and reality; instead of simply dismissing this phenomenon as "evil he tries to explain it and to incorporate it in his conception of the "universal".
Though sympathetic to the idea of a unified Germany, hegel was never a nationalist. He actually endorsed Napoleon's victory over Prussia (just like goethe seeing in it the progress into germany of the ideas born with the French revolution. Soon German nationalism evolved in a form of irrational exaltation of everything "German and the condemnation of foreign principles (among the, the ones of the French revolution). The foremost supporter of this exalted form of nationalism were Fries and Schleiermacher. Both of them were bitter academic adversaries of Hegel, who never embraced this kind of nationalism and remained skeptical towards any reactionary glorification of "typically german" traditions. Also in Berlin, hegel remained sympathetic to France (during a trip to paris, he wrote to his wife that he had arrived in the "capital of the civilised world.
Hegel was actually accused by german nationalists for being "unpatriotic". This accusation can be found in different authors, such as Rudolf haym and heinrich Treitschke. Finally, it has to be noted that (contrary to widespread prejudice) Hegel never declared that History would have culminated in Germany. The fact that his lectures on the philosophy of history end with a section entitled "The germanic World" has given rise to some (guilty) misunderstanding. In German, the proper title is "die germanische welt where the adjective "germanisch" does not at all refer to the word "German the inhabitant of Germany (which, in goethe's language, actually sounds "Deutsch. "Germanic" refers on the contrary to the peoples who invaded the roman Empire in the fourth/fifth century ad: from those tribes all European nations (i.e. French, germans, Italians, Spaniards, russians, etc.) derive. Wasn't Hegel a nazi?
Georg Hegel, idealism Philosophy: Discussion of, hegel
Not only was Hegel threatened by the Crown Prince and excluded by a prestigious academic position: his name is also mentioned a lot of times in Police reports of the time, as the one of a person involved in spreading liberal and progressive ideas. Finally, while hegel remained a constitutional monarchist until the end of his life, he never attributed excessive importance to the role of the sovereign. During his lessons on the philosophy of right he affirmed that the monarch's power consisted only in saying "yes" and then "dotting the i". Hegel's preference for Monarchy was based on logical/philosophical convictions: that there must be one representative alone of the "personality" of the State (and this role is attributed, also in modern states, to a monarch report or a president of the republic and that consitutional and parliamentary. From this account, it emerges clearly that the kind of Monarchy endorsed by hegel's political philosophy cannot be identified with autocracy or dictatorship. On the contrary, it can be compared with the "Westminster" system of government, only with a more crucial role assigned to civil service.3. Wasn't Hegel a german nationalist? German nationalism began flourishing after 1807, as a consequence of Prussia's humiliating defeat by napoleon's army and of the occupation of most of the former German Empire by French troops.
Hegel was describing the kind of State that liberal and progressive prussian reformers (such as Stein, but particularly hardenberg and Altenstein) would have liked to establish if they would have been given the possibility by king Frederick william iii and his reactionary entourage. Hegel's political philosophy - with its support for constitutionalism, public parliamentary debate, free elections and a strong civil service - was regarded with suspicion by the Prussian Monarchy, which saw in it a sort of moderate fulfillment of the principles proclaimed by the French revolution. For these reasons, hegel was rarely invited to court. The only well-documented episode, regarding a dinner with the Prussian Crown Prince and future king Frederick william iv, witnesses how tense the relations were between Hegel english and the court. During that dinner, the Crown Prince attacked Hegel's friend and foremost disciple, associate professor Eduard Gans, for his liberal ideas, suggesting that Hegel should take direct control over Gans's lectures. Moreover, due to the opposition of a conservative academic milieu and the court, hegel never made it through the royal Academy of Science in Berlin, contrary to the major intellectuals teaching in Prussia. Bearing all this in mind, the old and often repeated statement that Hegel was the "State Philosopher" in Prussia has to be utterly rejected.
in Hegel's political philosophy any link to actual and "fulfilled" forms of totalitarianism. For instance, hegel's "Philosophy of Right" considers family and civil society as crucial moments in the development of every individual. Hegel recognises explicitly all over this work that the "privacy" of the family is sacred, and that the independence of civil society is one of the distinguishing features of modern times. He opposes any attempt at attacking such pillars of society as a whole. That is exactly the opposite of what was attempted in XXth century totalitarian regimes, where civil society was subordinated to the "Party" and family's privacy came under ferocious attack. Philosophers who have tried to describe hegel as a totalitarian (such as Karl Popper and Bertrand Russell) simply misread Hegel, did not take the time to understand what he actually had to say, and committed the regrettable mistake to use hegel's philosophy as a subject. Now that the cold War is over, it is necessary to reappraise hegel's political philosophy and definitively abandon such gross and misleading interpretations of it, caused by the ugly "spirit of those times". Wasn't Hegel a lackey of the Prussian Monarchy? First of all, hegel's description of the rational State in his "Philosophy of Right" (1821) cannot be identified at all with a description of the Prussian Monarchy at the time hegel was writing.
Wasn't Hegel a totalitarian? "Totalitarianism" is a relatively new concept. It was employed for the first time in the xxth century, mainly to define a form of political organisation where there is the attempt to subordinate the whole behaviour and the consciousness of each single individual and the complexity of an entire society (and its. Taking into account this definition, it is deeply wrong to define hegel as a totalitarian. Firstly, hegel lived in Germany between the end of the xviith and the beginning of the xixth century, a time where no totalitarian forms of government existed, therefore it would be anachronistic to project on the philosopher ways of thinking and political experiences which are. Secondly, it is not even possible to find in Hegel's political philosophy elements which would have influenced yet-to-come totalitarian regimes. A distinctive character of Hegel's Logic, which is also recalled in his political philosophy, is that "the true is the whole". And the "whole that is the "universal would not be "universal" if it did not include in itself the "particular". In other terms, no "universal" ideal can be imposed, abstractly, on the "particular on the complexity and the richness of the many "particulars points because such imposition would contradict the very character of the "universal making it just another, dangerously dogmatic form of "particular".
M: Hegel ( charles taylor
Didn't Hegel say the modern age is the End of History? Isn't Hegel's Absolute the same as 'logomachy that is an insane 'battle of thoughts a offer pointless and ambitious overestimation of reason? If Hegel was a metaphysician, doesn't this make him irrelevant for modern times? How can some writers justify a non-metaphysical Hegel? Isn't Hegelian philosophy just another belief system for True believers to hold onto absolutely, and without question? Didn't Hegel declare that Art is dead? Didn't Hegel see himself, in an obvious megalomania, as the Absolute. Philosophy of nature:. Philosophy of spirit:.