Student online marketplaces edit Online marketplaces are one of the two major types of online websites students can use to sell used textbooks. Online marketplaces may have an online auction format or may allow the student to list their books for a fixed price. In either case, the student must create the listing for each book themselves and wait for a buyer to order, making the use of marketplaces a more passive way of selling used textbooks. Unlike campus buyback and online book, students are unlikely to sell all their books to one buyer using online marketplaces, and will likely have to send out multiple books individually. Online book buyers edit Online book buyers buy textbooks, and sometimes other types of books, with the aim of reselling them for a profit. Like online marketplaces, online book buyers operate year-round, giving students the opportunity to sell their books even when campus "buyback" periods are not in effect. Students enter the isbn numbers of the books they wish to sell and receive a price" or offer.
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13 When students resell their textbooks during campus buyback periods, these textbooks are often sold into the national used textbook distribution chain. If a textbook is not going to be used on campus for the next semester of courses then many times the college bookstore will sell that book to a national used book company. The used book company then resells the book to another college bookstore. Finally, that book is sold as used to a student at essay another college at a price that is typically 75 of the new book price. At each step, a markup is applied to the book to enable the respective companies to continue to operate. Student to student sales edit Students can also sell or trade textbooks among themselves. After completing a course, sellers will often seek out members of the next enrolling class, people who are likely to be interested in purchasing the required books. This may be done by posting flyers to advertise the sale of the books or simply soliciting individuals who are shopping in the college bookstore for the same titles. Many larger schools have independent websites set up for the purpose of facilitating such trade. These often operate much like digital classified ads, enabling students to list their items for sale and browse for those they wish to acquire. Also, at the us air Force Academy, it is possible to e-mail entire specific classes, allowing for an extensive network of textbook sales to exist.
Legislation requiring price disclosure has passed in Connecticut, 23 Washington, 24 25 Minnesota, 26 Oregon, 24 Arizona, 27 Oklahoma, 28 and Colorado. 18 Publishers are currently supporting about price disclosure mandates, though they insist that the "suggested retail price" 29 should be disclosed, rather than the actual price the publisher would get for the book. Used textbook market edit Once a textbook is purchased from a retailer for the first time, there are several ways a student can sell his/her textbooks back at the end of the semester or later. Students can sell to 1) the college/university bookstore; 2) fellow students; 3) a number of online websites; or 4) a student swap service. Campus buyback edit As for buyback on a specific campus, faculty decisions largely determine how much a student receives. If a professor chooses to use the same book the following semester, even if it is a custom text, designed specifically for an individual instructor, bookstores often buy the book back. The gao report found that, generally, if a book is in good condition and will be used on the campus again the next term, bookstores will pay students 50 percent of the original price paid. If the bookstore has not received a faculty order for the book at the end of the term and the edition is still current, they may offer students the wholesale price of the book, which could range from 5 to 35 percent of the new.
14 Publishers have testified in favor of bills including this provision, 15 but only in the case that the provision exempts the loosely defined category of "integrated textbooks." The federal bill 16 only exempts 3rd party materials in integrated textbooks, however publisher lobbyists have attempted. 17 18 Price disclosure edit given that the problem of high textbook prices is linked to the "broken" economics of the market, requiring publishers to disclose textbook prices to faculty is a solution pursued by a number of legislatures. 19 by inserting price into sales interactions, this regulation will supposedly make the economic forces operate more normally. No data suggests that this is in fact true. However, The Student pirgs have found that publishers actively withhold pricing information from faculty, making it difficult to obtain. Their most recent study biography found that 77 of faculty say publisher sales representatives do not volunteer prices, and only 40 got an answer when they directly asked. Furthermore, the study found that 23 of faculty rated publisher websites as informative and easy to use and less than half said they typically listed the price. 20 The us congress passed a law in the 2008 Higher Education Opportunity Act that would require price disclosure.
While wholesalers, retailers, and others do not question the quality of these materials, they have expressed concern that the publishers practice of packaging supplements with a textbook to sell as one unit limits the opportunity students have to purchase less expensive used books. If publishers continue to increase these investments, particularly in technology, the cost to produce a textbook is likely to continue to increase in the future. 13 Bundling has also been used as a means of segmenting the used book market. Each combination of a textbook and supplemental items receives a separate isbn. A single textbook could therefore have dozens of isbns that denote different combinations of supplements packaged with that particular book. When a bookstore attempts to track down used copies of textbooks, they will search for the isbn the course instructor orders, which will locate only a subset of the copies of the textbook. Legislation on the state and federal level seeks to limit the practice of bundling, by requiring publishers to offer all components separately.
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"New plant editions are to a considerable extent simply another tool used by publishers and textbook authors to maintain their revenue stream, that is, to keep up prices 8 A study conducted by The Student pirgs found that a new edition costs 12 more than. Textbook publishers maintain these new editions are driven by faculty demand. The Student pirgs' study found that 76 of faculty said new editions were justified half of the time or less and 40 said they were justified rarely thesis or never. 9 The pirg study has been criticized by publishers, who argue that the report contains factual inaccuracies regarding the annual average cost of textbooks per student. 10 The Student pirgs also point out that recent emphasis on electronic textbooks, or "eTextbooks does not always save students money.
Even though the book costs less up-front, the student will not recover any of the cost through resale. 11 Bundling edit Another publishing industry practice that has been highly criticized is "bundling or shrink-wrapping supplemental items into a textbook. Citation needed supplemental items range from cd-roms and workbooks to online passcodes and bonus material. Students do not always have the option to purchase these items separately, and often the one-time-use supplements destroy the resale value of the textbook. 12 According to the Student pirgs, the typical bundled textbook is 10-50 more than an unbundled textbook, and 65 of professors said they rarely or never use the bundled items in their courses. 9 A 2005 government Accountability Office (GAO) Report found that the production of these supplemental items was the primary cause of rapidly increasing prices: While publishers, retailers, and wholesalers all play a role in textbook pricing, the primary factor contributing to increases in the price.
Most college bookstores offer used copies of textbooks at lower prices. Most bookstores will also buy used copies back from students at the end of a term if the book is going to be re-used at the school. Books that are not being re-used at the school are often purchased by an off-campus wholesaler for 0-30 of the new cost, for distribution to other bookstores where the books will be sold. Textbook companies have countered this by encouraging faculty to assign homework that must be done on the publisher's website. If a student has a new textbook, then he or she can use the pass code in the book to register on the site.
If the student has purchased a used textbook, then he or she must pay money directly to the publisher in order to access the website and complete assigned homework. Students who look beyond the campus bookstore can typically find lower prices. With the isbn or title, author and edition, most textbooks can be located through online used book sellers or retailers. Most leading textbook companies publish a new edition every 3 or 4 years, more frequently in math science. Harvard economics chair James. Stock has stated that new editions are often not about significant improvements to the content.
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This fundamental difference in the market is often cited as the primary reason that prices are high. The term "broken market" first appeared in the economist James Koch's analysis of the market commissioned by the Advisory committee on Student Financial Assistance. 6 This situation is exacerbated by the lack of competition hibernation in the textbook market. Consolidation in the past few decades when? has reduced the number of major textbook companies hibernation from around 30 to just a handful. 7 Consequently, there is less competition than there used to be, and the high cost of starting up keeps new companies from entering. New editions and the used book market edit Students seek relief from rising prices through the purchase of used copies of textbooks, which tend to be less expensive.
Students now have access to electronic and pdf books, online tutoring systems and video lectures. An example of an electronically published book, or e-book, is Principles of biology from Nature publishing. Most notably, an increasing number of authors are foregoing commercial publishers and offering their textbooks under a creative commons or other open license. The "broken market" edit The textbook market does wallpaper not operate in the same manner as most consumer markets. First, the end consumers (students) do not select the product, and the people(faculty and professors) who do select the product do not purchase. Therefore, price is removed from the purchasing decision, giving the producer (publishers) disproportionate market power to set prices high. argue that textbooks are really part of another product; the class that the student registered to take. But the price of the textbook still isn't typically taken into account when this occurs and isn't part of the perception of the product.
website. Gutenberg's invention made mass production of texts possible for the first time. Although the gutenberg Bible itself was expensive, printed books began to spread widely over European trade routes during the next 50 years, and by the 16th century, printed books had become more widely accessible and less costly. 5 Compulsory education and the subsequent growth of schooling in Europe led to the printing of many standardized texts for children. Textbooks have become the primary teaching instrument for most children since the 19th century. Two textbooks of historical significance in United States schooling were the 18th century new England Primer and the 19th century McGuffey readers. Technological advances change the way people interact with textbooks. Online and digital materials are making it increasingly easy for students to access materials other than the traditional print textbook.
Early textbooks were used by tutors and teachers, who used the books as instructional aids (e.g., alphabet books as well as individuals who taught themselves. The Greek philosopher, plato lamented the loss of knowledge because the media of transmission were changing. 3, before the invention of the, greek alphabet 2,500 years ago, knowledge and stories were recited aloud, much like. Homer 's epic poems. The new technology of writing meant stories no longer needed to be memorized, a development Socrates good feared would weaken the Greeks' mental capacities for memorizing and retelling. (Ironically, we know about Socrates' concerns only because they were written down by his student. Plato in his famous dialogues.) 4, the next revolution for books came with the 15th-century invention of printing with changeable type. The invention is attributed to german metalsmith. Johannes Gutenberg, who cast type in molds using a melted metal alloy and constructed a wooden-screw printing press to transfer the image onto paper.
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For other uses, see, textbook (disambiguation). Textbook, a short textbook or coursebook uk english ) is a manual of instruction in any branch of study. Textbooks are produced according to the demands of educational institutions. Schoolbooks are textbooks and other books used in schools. Nowadays, most textbooks aren't published exclusively in printed format; many are now available as online electronic books. Contents, history edit, the history of textbooks dates back to civilizations of ancient history. For example, ancient Greeks wrote texts intended for education. The modern textbook has its roots in the standardization made possible by the printing press. Johannes Gutenberg himself may have printed editions of Ars Minor, a schoolbook on Latin grammar.