39 Nolte took the view that the principal problem of German history was this negative myth of the Third reich, which cast the nazi era as the ne plus ultra of evil. 40 Nolte contends that the great decisive event of the 20th century was the russian revolution of 1917, which plunged all of Europe into a long-simmering civil war that lasted until 1945. To nolte, fascism, communism's twin, arose as a desperate response by the threatened middle classes of Europe to what Nolte has often called the bolshevik peril. He suggests that if one wishes to understand the holocaust, one should begin with the Industrial revolution in Britain, and then understand the rule of the Khmer rouge in Cambodia. In his 1987 book der europäische bürgerkrieg, nolte argued in the interwar period, germany was Europe's best hope for progress. 41 Nolte wrote that "if Europe was to succeed in establishing itself as a world power on an equal footing with the United States and the soviet Union, then Germany had to be the core of the new 'United States. 41 Nolte claimed if Germany had to continue to abide by part v of the Treaty of Versailles, which had disarmed Germany, then Germany would have been destroyed by aggression from her neighbors sometime later in the 1930s, and with Germany's destruction, there would have.
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38 The crux of Nolte's thesis was presented when he wrote: "It is a notable shortcoming of the literature about National Socialism that jefferson it does not know or does not want to admit to what degree all the deeds—with the sole exception of the technical. It is probable that many of these reports were exaggerated. It is certain that the white terror also committed terrible deeds, even though its program contained no analogy to the extermination of the bourgeoisie. Nonetheless, the following question must seem permissible, even unavoidable: Did the national Socialists or Hitler perhaps commit an Asiatic deed merely because they and their ilk considered themselves to be the potential victims of an Asiatic deed? Wasnt the ' gulag Archipelago ' more original than Auschwitz? Was the bolshevik murder of an entire class not the logical and factual prius of the "racial murder" of National Socialism? Cannot Hitler's most secret deeds be explained by the fact that he had not forgotten the rat cage? Did Auschwitz in its root causes not originate in a past that would not pass? Nolte called the auschwitz death camp and the other German death camps of World War ii a "copy" of the soviet Gulag camps. In addition, nolte sees his work as the beginning of a much-needed revisionist treatment to end the "negative myth" of the Third reich that dominates contemporary perceptions.
The historikerstreit edit main article: Historikerstreit Nolte's thesis edit nolte is best known for his role in launching the historikerstreit historians' dispute of 19On olte published a feuilleton opinion piece entitled "Vergangenheit, die nicht vergehen will: Eine rede, die geschrieben, aber nicht mehr gehalten werden. 33 His feuilleton was a distillation of ideas he had first introduced in lectures delivered in 19Earlier in 1986, nolte had planned to deliver a speech before the Frankfurt Römerberg Conversations (an annual gathering of intellectuals but he had claimed that essay the organizers of the. 34 In response, an editor and co-publisher of the Frankfurter Allgemeine zeitung, joachim Fest, allowed Nolte to have his speech printed as a feuilleton in his newspaper. 35 One of Nolte's leading critics, British historian Richard. Evans, claims that the organizers of the römerberg Conversations did not withdraw their invitation, and that Nolte had just refused to attend. 36 Nolte began his feuilleton by remarking that it was necessary in his opinion to draw a "line under the german past". 37 Nolte argued that the memory of the nazi era was "a bugaboo, as a past that in the process of establishing itself in the present or that is suspended above the present like an executioner's sword". 38 Nolte complained that excessive present-day interest in the nazi period had the effect of drawing "attention away from the pressing questions of the present—for example, the question of "unborn life" or the presence of genocide yesterday in vietnam and today in Afghanistan ".
How should we cope with a study that begins its discussion of the cold War with Herodotus and the Greeks versus the persians? Instead Nolte indulges in a potted history of Cold War events as they engulfed Asia and the middle east as well as Europe, up through the sino-soviet dispute, the vietnam War and salt. The rationale is evidently that Germany can be interpreted only in the light of the world conflict, but the result verges on a centrifugal, coffee-table narrative". 31 Nolte has little regard for specific historical context in his treatment of the history of ideas, opting to seek what Carl Schmitt labeled the abstract "final" or "ultimate" ends of ideas, which for Nolte are the most extreme conclusions which can be drawn from. 28 For Nolte, ideas have a force of their own, and once a new idea has been introduced into the world, except plan for the total destruction of society, it cannot be ignored any more than the discovery of how to make fire or the invention. book deutschland und der kalte Krieg ( biography Germany and the cold War nolte wrote there was "a worldwide reproach that the United States was after all putting into practice in vietnam, nothing less than its basically crueler version of Auschwitz". The books Der Faschismus in seiner Epoche, deutschland und der kalte Krieg, and Marxismus und industrielle revolution ( Marxism and the Industrial revolution ) formed a trilogy in which Nolte seeks to explain what he considered to be the most important developments of the 20th.
As such, noltes work has been oriented towards the general as opposed to the specific attributes of a particular period of time. book deutschland und der kalte Krieg ( Germany and the cold War nolte examined the partition of Germany after 1945, not by looking at the specific history of the cold War and Germany, but rather by examining other divided states throughout history, treating the german. 28 In Nolte's view, the division of Germany made that nation the world's central battlefield between soviet communism and American democracy, both of which were rival streams of the "transcendence" that had vanquished the Third reich, the ultimate enemy of "transcendence". 29 Nolte called the cold War "the ideological and political conflict for the future structure of a united world, carried on for an indefinite period since 1917 (indeed anticipated as early as 1776) by several militant universalisms, each of which possesses at least one major. 30 likewise, nolte called for the end of what he regarded as the unfair stigma attached to german nationalism because of National Socialism, and demanded that historians recognize that every country in the world had at some point in its history had "its own Hitler. 30 In 1978, the American historian Charles. Maier described Nolte's approach in deutschland und der kalte Krieg as: "This approach threatens to degenerate into the excessive valuation of abstraction as a surrogate for real transactions that heine satirized and Marx dissected.
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22 According to nolte, "In Hitler's extermination of the jews, it was not a case of criminals committing criminal deeds, but of a uniquely monstrous action in which principles ran riot in a frenzy of self-destruction". 22 Nolte's theories about nazi antisemitism as a rejection of modernity inspired the Israeli historian Otto dov kulka to argue that National Socialism was an attack on "the very roots of Western civilisation, its basic values and moral foundations". 23 The Three faces of Fascism has been much praised citation needed as a seminal contribution to the creation of a theory of generic fascism based on a history of ideas, as opposed to the previous class-based analyses (especially the "Rage of the lower Middle. 9 The german historian Jen-Werner Müller wrote that Nolte "almost single-handedly" brought down the totalitarianism paradigm in the 1960s and replaced it with the fascism paradigm. 24 British historian Roger Griffin has written that although written in arcane and obscure language, nolte's theory of fascism as a "form of resistance to transcendence" marked an important step in the understanding of fascism, and helped to spur scholars into new avenues of research. 9 Criticism from the left, for example by sir Ian Kershaw, centered on Nolte's focus on ideas as opposed to social and economic conditions as a motivating force for fascism, and that Nolte depended too much on fascist writings to support his thesis.
13 Kershaw described Nolte's theory of fascism as "resistance to transcendence" as "mystical and mystifying". 13 The American historian Fritz Stern wrote that The Three faces of Fascism was an "uneven book" that was "weak" on Action Française, "strong" on Fascism and "masterly" on National Socialism. 25 Later in the 1970s, nolte was to reject aspects of the theory of generic fascism that he had championed in The Three faces of Fascism and instead moved closer to embracing totalitarian theory as a way of explaining both nazi germany words and the soviet. In Nolte's opinion, nazi germany was a "mirror image" of the soviet Union and, with the exception of the "technical detail" of mass gassing, everything the nazis did in Germany had already been done by the communists in Russia. Methodology edit All of Noltes historical work has been heavily influenced by german traditions of philosophy. 26 In particular, nolte seeks to find the essences of the "metapolitical phenomenon" of history, to discover the grand ideas which motivated all of history.
16 Drawing upon the work of Max Weber, friedrich nietzsche, and Karl Marx, nolte argued that the progress of both types of "transcendence" generates fear as the older world is swept aside by a new world, and that these fears led to fascism. 17 Nolte wrote that: The most central of maurras 's ideas have been seen to penetrate to this level. By monotheism and anti-nature he did not imply a political process: he related these terms to the tradition of Western philosophy and religion, and left no doubt that for him they were not only adjuncts of rousseau 's notion of liberty, but also of the. It is equally obvious that he regarded the unity of world economics, technology, science and emancipation merely as another and more recent form of anti-nature. It was not difficult to find a place for Hitler ideas as a cruder and more recent expression of this schema.
Maurras' and Hitler's real enemy was seen to be freedom towards the infinite which, intrinsic in the individual and a reality in evolution, threatens to destroy the familiar and beloved. From all this it begins to be apparent what is meant by transcendence. 18 In regard to the holocaust, nolte contended that because Adolf Hitler identified Jews with modernity, the basic thrust of nazi policies towards Jews had always aimed at genocide. 19 Nolte wrote that: Auschwitz was contained in the principles of nazi racist theory like the seed in the fruit. 20 Nolte believed that, for Hitler, jews represented "the historical process itself". 21 Nolte argues that Hitler was "logically consistent" in seeking genocide of the jews because hitler detested modernity and identified Jews with the things that he most hated in the world.
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10 Nolte argued that fascism functioned at three levels: in the world of politics as a form of opposition to marxism, at the sociological level in opposition to bourgeois values, and in the "metapolitical" world as "resistance to transcendence" transcendence" in German can be translated. 11 Nolte defined the relationship between fascism and Marxism as: Fascism is anti-marxism which seeks to destroy the enemy by the evolvement of a radically opposed and yet related ideology and by the use of almost identical and yet typically modified methods, always, however within. 12 Nolte defined "transcendence" as a "metapolitical" force comprising two types of change. 13 The first type, "practical transcendence manifesting in material progress, technological change, political equality, and social advancement, comprises the process by which humanity liberates itself from traditional, hierarchical societies in favor of societies where all men and women are equal. 13 14 The second type is "theoretical transcendence the striving to go beyond what exists in the world towards a new future, eliminating traditional fetters imposed on the human mind by poverty, backwardness, ignorance, and class. 14 Nolte himself defined "theoretical transcendence theoretical transcendence may be taken to mean the reaching out of the mind beyond what exists and what can exist toward an absolute whole; in a broader sense this may be applied to all that goes beyond, that releases. The flight of Gagarin around the earth in 1961 was used by nolte in his 1963 book der Faschismus in seiner literature Epoche as an example of transcendence. Nolte cited the flight of Yuri gagarin in 1961 as an example of practical proposal transcendence, of how humanity was pressing forward in its technological development and rapidly acquiring powers traditionally thought to be only the province of the gods.
Nolte married Annedore mortier 3 and they had a son, georg Nolte, now a professor of international law at Humboldt University of Berlin. Fascism in Its Epoch edit main article: Fascism in Its Epoch Nolte rose to fame with his 1963 book der Faschismus in seiner Epoche ( Fascism in Its Epoch ; translated into English in 1965 as The Three faces of Fascism in which he argued. Nolte's basic hypothesis killers and methodology were deeply rooted in the german "philosophy of history" tradition, a form of intellectual history which seeks to discover the "metapolitical dimension" of history. 8 The "metapolitical dimension" is considered to be the history of grand ideas functioning as profound spiritual powers, which infuse all levels of society with their force. 8 In Nolte's opinion, only those with training in philosophy can discover the "metapolitical dimension and those who use normal historical methods miss this dimension of time. 8 Using the methods of phenomenology, nolte subjected German nazism, italian Fascism, and the French Action Française movements to a comparative analysis. Nolte's conclusion was that fascism was the great anti-movement: it was anti-liberal, anti-communist, anti-capitalist, and anti-bourgeois. In Noltes view, fascism was the rejection of everything the modern world had to offer and was an essentially negative phenomenon. 9 In a hegelian dialectic, nolte argued that the Action Française was the thesis, Italian Fascism was the antithesis, and German National Socialism the synthesis of the two earlier fascist movements.
acknowledges as a major influence. 5 onwards, nolte was a close friend of the heidegger family, and when in 1945 the professor feared arrest by the French, nolte provided him with food and clothing for an attempted escape. 7 Eugen Fink was another professor who influenced Nolte. After 1945 when Nolte received his ba in philosophy at Freiburg, he worked as a gymnasium (high school) teacher. In 1952, he received a phD in philosophy at Freiburg for his thesis Selbstentfremdung und dialektik im deutschen Idealismus und bei marx ( Self Alienation and the dialectic in German Idealism and Marx ). Subsequently, nolte began studies in zeitgeschichte (contemporary history). He published his Habilitationsschrift awarded at the University of Cologne, der Faschismus in seiner Epoche, as a book in 1963. Between 19, nolte worked as a professor at the University of Marburg, and from 1973 to 1991 at the Free university of Berlin.
Historikerstreit in the late 1980s. In recent years, nolte focused. Islamism and islamic fascism ". He was the father of legal scholar. Nolte received several prizes, including the. Hanns Martin Schleyer Prize and the, konrad Adenauer Prize. Contents, early life edit, nolte was born in, witten, westphalia, germany. Nolte's parents were heinrich Nolte, a school rector, and Anna (née bruns) Nolte. 3 According to nolte in a march 28, 2003 interview with a french newspaper Eurozine, his first encounter with communism occurred when he was 7 years old in 1930, when he read in a doctor's office a german translation of a soviet children's book attacking.
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Ernst Nolte ( ) 1 biography was a german historian and philosopher. Noltes major interest was the comparative studies of fascism and communism (cf. Comparison of nazism and Stalinism ). Originally trained in philosophy, he was professor emeritus of modern history at the, free university of Berlin, where he taught from 1973 until his 1991 retirement. He was previously a professor at the. University of Marburg from 1965 to 1973. He was best known for his seminal work. Fascism in Its Epoch, which received widespread acclaim when it was published in 1963. 2, nolte was a prominent conservative academic from the early 1960s and was involved in many controversies related to the interpretation of the history of fascism and communism, including the.